This section of references for bitemarks is a revue
of all articles on the subject in chronological order.
1960 Fearnhead RW. Med Sci Law; 1:273-77 Facilities
for forensic odontology. Describes the use of hand drawn acetate overlays. Draws
the conclusion that "evidence which involves the identification of a person by
tooth-marks left as bruises in flesh should never be admitted". Describes simple
experiment. One of the first papers to question the use of bitemark evidence
based upon the reliability of the technique.
1963 Taylor DV. Brit Dent J; 114:389 The law and the
dentist. Written by a dual qualified dentist and lawyer. Describes all aspects
of forensic dentistry, including bitemarks. States "..unlikely to establish
convincing proof in most cases".
1966 Layton JJ. J Forensic Sci Soc; 6:76-80
Identification from a bitemark in cheese. A bitemark in cheese found at a crime
scene. Control bitemark made in similar cheese by the suspect and twenty points
of similarity are discussed. Suspect admitted guilt. States that BMs can never
be as positive as fingerprints.
1966 Harvey W, Butler O, Furness J, Laird R. J Forensic
Sci Soc; 8(4):157-219 The Biggar murder. Dental, medical, police and legal
aspects of a case "in some ways unique, difficult and puzzling". Extensive case
report detailing a Scottish murder in which bitemark evidence played a key role
in the conviction of the defendant.
1968 Furness J. Br Dent J; 124(6):261-7 A new method for
the identification of teeth marks in cases of assault and homicide. Paper
describes the inking of the occlusal surfaces of the teeth which are then
photographed and placed on white board. Lines of comparison are drawn with
photographs of the injury. Technique is still used today for court exhibits
depicting bitemark comparisons.
1969 Furness J. J Forensic Sci Soc; 9:126-75 Teeth marks
and their significance in cases of homicide. Paper claims to differentiate
between marks made in self-defence, those made sadistically and "love-nips".
Unconvincing. Numerous case examples given. There is somewhat of a debate on the
psychology of biting and the inferences that can be made about an attacker from
1970 Hodson JJ. Med Sci Law; 10(4):247-51 Forensic
odontology and its role in the problems of the police and forensic pathologist.
Paper outlines the value of forensic dentistry to the police. Recommends the
type of dentists who should be called to assist. Summarises with case reports
including a bitemark case on two young children.
1970 Levine LJ, Beaghler RL. NY State Dent J;
36(9):539-42 Forensic odontology - a routine case and commentary. This paper,
written for the general practitioner, mentions bitemarks only in passing. The
majority of the paper is devoted to an identification case.
1970 Furness J. Probe; 11:221-22 Dental evidence in a
case of rape. Case report describing a bite to the nose of an assailant.
1971 DeVore DT. Med Sci Law; 11(3):144-5 Bitemarks for
identification? A preliminary report. Author used ink models to place marks on
living volunteers and cadavers. Photographs of the marks were taken in several
body positions. Skin from the cadavers bearing the ink was excised. Paper
concludes that there is a large margin of error in using bitemark photographs
and unsecured excised skin. States that the exact position of the body when
bitten must be known and replicated. A useful study. Little attention has been
paid to this paper that encourages caution when examining bite
1972 MacDonald DG, MacFarlane TW. Glasg Dent J;
3(1):16-9 Forensic odontology. Report of a case involving bitemarks. Case report
of a bitemark on a living victim.. 6
1973 Stoddart TJ. Br Dent J; 135(6):285-7 Bitemarks in
perishable substances. A method of producing permanent models. A method for
producing accurate models of bitten materials, silicone impression material is
recommended. Technique described is still applicable today.
1973 Butler OH. Int J Forens Dent; 1(1):23-4 The value
of bitemark evidence. Written by a police officer, this paper discusses the
types and presentation of dental evidence.
1973 Woolridge ED. Int J Forens Dent; 2(1):6-12
Significant problems of the forensic odontologist in the USA. Describes some of
the legal issues that surround forensic dentistry. This topic has been addressed
in more contemporary articles.
1974 Marshall W. Criminol; 9(32):21-34 Bitemarks in
apples - forensic aspects. Paper describes the stability and usefulness of bites
in a variety of different types of apple.
1973 Sims BG, Grant JH, Cameron JM. Med Sci Law;
13(3):207-10 Bitemarks in the 'battered baby' syndrome Describes the frequent
occurrence of bite injuries in child abuse cases and presents three cases.
1974 Simon A, Jordan H, Pforte K. Int J Forens Dent;
2:17-2 Successful identification of a bitemark in a sandwich. Case report
describing a bitemark in a sandwich.
1974 Jonason CO, Frykholm KO, Frykholm A. Int J Forensic
Dent; 2(6):70-8 Three dimensional measurement of tooth impression of
criminological investigation. Use of a stereomicroscope to measure the three
dimensional aspects of bitemarks. Later repeated using scanning electron
1974 Clift A, Lamont CM. J Forens Sci Soc; 14(3):241-5
Saliva in forensic odontology. Describes the methods for collecting and
analysing saliva for the determination of blood groups. Influential paper,
although now superseded by DNA work.
1974 Dinkel EH Jr. J Forens Sci; 19(3):535-47 Use of
bitemark evidence as an investigative aid. Reviews the current (74) literature
dealing with the handling and examination of bitemarks. Includes a discussion of
the legal implications of the time. Case reports described. Comprehensive, and
describes areas in which improvement must be made.
1974 Barbanel JC, Evans JH. J Forensic Sci Soc;
14(3):235-8 Bitemarks in skin - mechanical factors. Describes the mechanical
factors used to produce a bite, including tongue pressure and suction. States
that the properties of particular skin area bitten may affect the appearance of
a bitemark. Clear and concise coverage of the topic that has not been addressed
1974 Millington PF. J Forensic Sci Soc; 14(3):239-40
Histological studies of skin carrying bitemarks. Histological examination of
bites from both living and deceased individuals. States that complete recovery
of a bite injury may take 2 or 3 weeks. States that the use of histology in
determining the time of the injury may be helpful. The ageing of wounds, and in
particular bitemarks, is still debated.
1974 MacDonald DG. J Forensic Sci Soc; 14(3):229-33
Bitemark recognition and interpretation. Describes a method of classification of
bitemarks based on their aetiology.
1974 MacFarlane TW., MacDonald DG, Sutherland DA. J
Forensic Sci Soc; 14(3):247-52 Statistical problems in dental identification.
Discusses the issue of the individuality of the human dentition and describes an
experiment to determine this. Authors conclude that their preliminary data
supports the notion that human teeth are unique to an individual level.
Surprisingly, considering the importance of this issue to forensic dentists,
this paper has been somewhat ignored and may be worth
1974 Ruddick RF. Med Biolo Illus; 24(3):128-9 A
technique for recording bitemarks for forensic studies Describes the use of
alternative light sources for the enhancement of bitemark injuries. A subject of
interest to many forensic dentists.
1975 Sognnaes RF, Therrell R. J Cal Dent Assoc;
3(10):50-3 Bitemark lesions in human skin caused by an unequivocally identified
'suspect'. Describes an accidental bite caused by a child on her father.
1975 Solheim T, Leidal TI. Forensic Sci; 6(3):205-15
Scanning electron microscopy in the investigation of bitemarks in foodstuffs. In
this study students with no obvious irregularities on their anterior teeth were
asked to bite various foodstuffs. Using SEM the marks were analysed and the
authors concluded that as many individual characteristics were visible the
technique was useful in forensic investigations. An interesting technique,
although infrequently used in case work.
1975 Whittaker DK. Int Dent J; 25(3):166-71 Some
laboratory studies on the accuracy of bitemark comparisons. Author studied bites
in wax and on pig skin. Found that those on pig skin were less reliable than
those on wax in terms of biter identification. Extrapolates that bites on human
skin may be similarly unreliable; offers a warning that more research is
Highly cited paper - often regarded as one of the first attempts
to validate the science of bitemark analysis. Warning went unheeded.
1975 Whittaker DK, Watkins KE, Wiltshire J. Int J
Forensic Dent; 3:2-7 An experimental assessment of the reliability of bitemark
analysis. Same paper as described above - republished with some editorial
differences and apparently two new authors.
1976 Bang G. Acta Odontol Scand; 34(1):1-11 Analysis of
tooth marks in a homicide case. Observations by means of visual description,
stereo-photography, scanning electron microscopy and stereometric graphic
plotting. Author was asked to re-examine a bitemark case involving an injury to
a breast. Using novel techniques, including SEM, the author found that the
originally convicted individual was the likely biter.
1976 Anderson WR, Hudson RP. Forens Sci; 7(1):71-4 Self
inflicted bitemarks in battered child syndrome. Victim of child abuse victim had
bitemarks on both arms. Authors demonstrated that the bite was from the victim.
Importance of this phenomenon in evaluation of bite injuries is discussed. Used
transparent overlays in analysis. Established that bites can be
1976 MacDonald DG, Laird WR Int J Forensic Dent;
3(10):26-30 Bitemarks in a murder case. Case report describing a murder
involving a bite to the abdomen and breast. Authors describe the use of
statistics to determine the number of individuals capable of producing the bite.
Statistical evidence was presented in court. Use of statistics is interesting in
this case. Arrived at a figure of 1 in 62 million. It must be noted that
approximately half of the Scottish population were edentulous at this
1976 Sognnaes RF. Int J Forensic Dent; 3(9):14-6 Dental
science as evidence in court. Describes some applications of forensic dental
techniques in court.
1976 Mills PB. Int J Forensic Dent; 3:38-9 An unusual
case of bitemark identification. Describes a bitemark on a
1976 Vale GL, Sognnaes RF, Felando GN, Noguchi TT. J
Forensic Sci; 21(3):642-52 Unusual three-dimensional bitemark evidence in a
Describes a case of bitemark identification. Bite was on
victim's nose. Authors concluded a positive match and this became the first case
in Californian Law using bitemark evidence.
1976 Goodbody RA, Turner CH, Turner JL. Med Sci Law;
16(1):44-8 The differentiation of toothed marks: report of a case of special
interest. Discusses the differences between bite injuries and "toothed" injuries
such as those made by a saw. Used acetate film to compare to a suspect's
1977 Levine LJ Dent Clin N Amer; 21(1):145-158 Bitemark
evidence. Review followed by numerous case reports.
1977 Sognnaes RF. Int J Forensic Dent; 4(13):17-20 The
case for better bite and bitemark preservations. Describes the excision of skin
and the use of elastomeric impression materials for the preservation of bitemark
1977 Kerr NW. Int J Forensic Dent; 4:20-23 Apple
bitemark identification of a suspect. Simple case report of a bitemark in an
apple found after a house break-in.
1977 Sognnaes RF. J Cal Dent Assoc; 4:22-8 Battered
child death involving enigmatic bitemark evidence. Cases report describing
bitemark evidence in a child abuse case. Describes comparison technique and the
legal outcome. Uses SEM.
1977 Sognnaes RF. New Eng J Med; 296:79-85 Forensic
stomatology. Three part series. Sognnaes reviews the forensic literature in a
three part series as part of the Medical Progress section. Various methods of
forensic evaluation of bitemarks are discussed.
1978 Sognnaes RF. Dental Survey; 54(12):12-24 Forensic
oral measurements. A review of the "state-of-the-art" of forensic
1979 Beckstead JW, Rawson RD, Giles W. JADA; 99(1):69-74
Review of bite mark evidence. A general review.
1979 Morrison HL. J Forens Sci; 24(2):492-502
Psychiatric observations and interpretations of bite mark evidence in multiple
murders. Interesting paper in which the author describes over 400 hours of
contact time with a serial murder who bit many of his victims. Whilst not
answering "why do people bite?" author raises interesting questions. The
psychological aspects of bitemarks are yet to be firmly
1979 Rawson RD, Bell A, Kinard BS, Kinard JG J Forens
Sci; 24(4):898-901 Radiographic interpretation of contrast-media-enhanced bite
marks. Describes a techniques of radiographing soft -tissue that has been
removed from cadavers. Study used postmortem bites.
1980 Glass RT, Andrews EE, Jones K 3d. J Forens Sci;
25(3):638-45 Bitemark evidence: a case report using accepted and new techniques.
Case report with bitemarks found on a murder victim. Authors describe the use of
novel techniques including microbiologic and histologic/histochemical.
Preparation and presentation of evidence are discussed.
1980 Holt JK. J Forensic Sci Soc; 20(4):243-6
Identification from bitemarks. A collection of case reports describing different
methods of augmenting bite photographs and production of 3D models of bite
1981 Furness J. Am J Forensic Med Pathol; 2(1):49-52 A
general review of bitemark evidence. A personal recollection of a forensic
dentist, describes case work and issues around bitemarks in English law. No
1981 Sperber ND, Lubin H. J Am Col Health Association.;
29(4):165-7 Bite mark evidence in crimes against persons. Paper describes bites
for college and university health workers and security personnel. Techniques for
photographing the injuries are presented.
1981 Jakobsen JR, Keiser-Nielsen S. Forensic Sci Int;
18(1):41-55 Bitemark lesions in human skin. Case of severe bitemarks on the back
of a male victim. The authors used a volunteer to repeat the bite injuries for
comparison. Ethical issues surround the use of human volunteers in bitemark
1982 Dorion RB. J Can Dent Assoc; 48(12):795-8 Bite mark
evidence. General review.
1982 Webster G. Forensic Sci Int; 20(1):45-52 A
suggested classification of bitemarks in foodstuffs in forensic dental analysis.
Author states that it is the labial surfaces rather than the biting edges that
are responsible for bitemarks in food. Webster suggests an alternate terminology
to bring uniformity in describing such evidence. Bitemarks in food are rare in
criminal cases, although recently cheese has yielded DNA from a
1982 Sognnaes RF, Rawson RD, Gratt BM, Nguyen NB. JADA;
105(3):449-51 Computer comparison of bitemark patterns in identical twins. Using
computer technology and radiographic bitemark analysis the authors conclude that
occlusal arch form and individual tooth positions, even in identical twins are
in fact unique. This paper is frequently cited as evidence of dental
"uniqueness". Highly cited paper, frequently used as part of the dental
1982 Rudland M. Med Sci Law; 22(1):47-50 The dimensional
stability of bitemarks in apples after long-term storage in a fixative. Paper
describes the method for preserving a variety of apple types. Used a pre-defined
mark which was examined over a period of ten years, with little distortion
1983 Irons F, Steuterman MC, Brinkhous W. Am J Forensic
Med Pathol; 4(2):177-80 Two bitemarks on assailant. Primary link to homicide
conviction. Two bitemarks were found on a suspect in a homicide. The authors
state that the injuries matched the victims' teeth and the suspect pled guilty
to the offence.
1983 McCullough DC. Am J Forensic Med Pathol; 4(4):355-8
Rapid comparison of bitemarks by xerography. Case report of bite in cheese, the
detective used a photocopier to record the evidence.
1983 Ligthelm AJ, de Wet FA. J Forens Odontstomatol;
1(1):19-26 Registration of bitemarks: a preliminary report. Used bites on sheep
to investigate methods of recording bitemarks. Utilized SEM to compare back to
the human volunteers who bit the sheep.
1983 Deming JE, Mittleman RE, Wetli CV J Forens Sci;
28(3): 572-6 Forensic science aspects of fatal sexual assaults on women. The
authors review the case files of 41 female victims of proven fatal sexual
assault. Describe bitemarks as not infrequent in such crimes.
1983 Vale GL, Noguchi TT. J Forens Sci; 28(1):61-9
Anatomical distribution of human bitemarks in a series of 77 cases. Paper which
examined the author's own cases to establish common bite locations. Seminal
paper, establishes the nature of bites and likely crimes.
1984 Rawson RD, Brooks S. Am J Forensic Med Pathol;
5(1):19-24 Classification of human breast morphology important to bitemark
investigation. Describes the range of breast morphologies found and their likely
impact on bitemark analysis.
1984 Walter RD. Am J Forensic Med Pathol; 5(1):25-9 An
examination of the psychological aspects of bitemarks. Paper attempts to examine
some of the psychological threads which appear to be operative for the
perpetrator of bite marks. Serious discussion, often cited but very poorly
understood. Note that this is RD Walter, not RA.
1984 Corbett ME, Spence D. Br Dent J; 157(8):270-1 A
forensic investigation of teeth marks in soap. A bite mark in soap was used as
evidence in the prosecution of a homicide of a 2 year old girl.
1984 Elliot TR. Rogers AH. Haverkamp JR. Groothuis D.
Forens Sci Int; 26(2):131-7 Analytical pyrolysis of Streptococcus salivarius as
an aid to identification in bitemark investigation Authors describe
"finger-printing" strains of Streptococcus salivarius. The results of the
analysis of isolates from two individuals are presented, illustrating the
differentiation of S. salivarius at strain level according to the origin of the
1984 Brown KA. Elliot TR. Rogers AH. Thonard JC.
Forensic Sci Int; 26(3):193-7 The survival of oral streptococci on human skin
and its implication in bitemark investigation. Authors describe their
experiments for recovering bacteria from saliva. Found that after 6..25 hours on
skin viable bacteria could still be removed.
1984 Dorion RB. J Can Dent Assoc; 50(2):129-30
Preservation and fixation of skin for ulterior scientific evaluation and
courtroom presentation. Describes a method for removing and preserving human
skin exhibiting bite injuries. Author uses acrylic which is placed on the skin,
cyanoacrylate glue used to stick the acrylic ring to the skin and the tissue
excised. Three year preservation achieved little or no post fixation shrinkage.
No discussion of how the lack of shrinkage was assessed. Numerous photographs
illustrate the procedure well.
1984 Krauss TC J Forens Sci; 29(2):633-8 Photographic
techniques of concern in metric bite mark analysis. Author advises the use of a
rigid ruler for scale, proper camera positioning in relation to the scale, and a
method to evaluate the distortion in a two-dimensional print that records a
three-dimensional object is suggested. Disregarding these factors makes metric
bite mark analysis inappropriate.
1984 Rawson RD. J Forens Sci; 29(1):245-53 Statistical
evidence for the individuality of the human dentition. A general population
sample of bite marks in wax was used to determine how unique bites are. Authors
conclude that the analysis confirm the unique nature of human bites. Seminal
1984 Rawson RD. J Forens Sci; 29(1):254-9 Incidence of
bitemarks in a selected juvenile population: a preliminary report. A study of
the frequency of bite marks among sheltered children. Found an incidence of 1
545 bite marks per 100 000 population. Analysis of the age, sex, and location of
bite marks is presented.
1984 Karazulas CP. J Forens Sci; 29(1):355-358
Presentation of bitemark evidence resulting in the acquittal of a man after
serving seven years in prison for murder Author describes case in which he
appeared for the defence with another odontologist testifying for the
prosecution. 3 months of bitemark analysis.
1984 Rao VJ, Souviron RR. J Forensic Sci; 19(1):326-30
Dusting and lifting the bite print: a new technique. Utilising the powder and
brush method employed in lifting fingerprints, one of the authors was able to
lift tooth prints on the body surface of both living and dead victims. Possibly
a useful technique but never revisited.
1985 Krauss TC, Warlen SC. J Forens Sci; 30(1):262-8 The
forensic science use of reflective ultraviolet photography. The procedure for
reflective ultraviolet photography in bite mark cases is presented. Technique is
described as simple and inexpensive. 3 8
1985 Havel DA Journal of Biological Photography.
53(2):59-62 The role of photography in the presentation of bitemark evidence.
Paper explains the various photographic techniques that can be used with
1985 Walter RD. Am J Forensic Med Pathol; 6(3):219-21
Anger biting - the hidden impulse. Examines principle of anger related biting,
describes memory loss of biting incidents and offers a framework to resolving
anger biting by decompressing the emotional content. Needs a serious
1985 Leung AK. Injury; 16(7):503-4 Pseudo-abusive human
bitemarks in a Chinese infant. Unable to locate this article. Can anyone
1985 Drinnan AJ, Melton MJ. Int Dent J; 35(4):316-21
Court presentation of bitemark evidence. Instructs readers on court presentation
techniques and gives details on how to avoid common pitfalls. Opens with the
acceptance that an individual's bite is unique. Quote twin study as support for
this and supported by Rawson et al. Discusses the polarisation of expert
opinions. Describes Frye.
1985 Bernstein ML. J Forens Sci; 30(3):958-64 Two
bitemark cases with inadequate scale references. Both cases illustrate that a
technical infraction in processing and recording bite marks, though serious,
need not automatically disqualify the analysis.
1986 Sperber N. Forensic Sci Int; 30(2-3):187-93
Identification of children and adults through federal and state dental
identification systems: recognition of human bitemarks. Mainly a discussion of
human dental identification - the paper contains a small section on human
bitemarks to complete the forensic dental review.
1986 David TJ. J Forens Sci; 31(3):1126-34 Adjunctive
use of scanning electron microscopy in bitemark analysis: a 3D study. An
examination of a case in which adjunctive use of scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) demonstrated the presence of unusual three-dimensional characteristics in
a bite mark. Commonly described yet uncommonly used
in case work.
1986 Rawson RD, Vale GL. J Forens Sci; 31(4):1261-8
Analysis of photographic distortion in bitemarks: a report of the bitemark
guidelines committee. States that some degree of distortion is found in all
bitemarks. A method of analysing the distortion is presented. Recommend a 90o
angle for bitemark photography.
1986 Rawson RD, Vale GL, Sperber ND, Herschaft EE,
Yfantis A. J Forens Sci; 31(4):1235-60 Reliability of the Scoring System of the
American Board of Forensic Odontology for Human Bite Marks. The various methods
the validity of the scoring guide are presented with
statistical data generated from scores reported by recognised forensic science
experts. States that this paper represents the first truly scientific approach
to bitemark analysis. Emphasise the need for peer review. The paper was
ultimately disregarded as overly complex and the system never gained credibility
with forensic dentists.
1986 ABFO Inc. JADA; 112:383-6 Guidelines for bitemark
analysis. This paper, written by the members of the Bite Mark Committee,
presents guidelines for the proper investigation of bite injuries. The article
cites Hale's 78 paper as an instigator in the process of establishing protocols.
These guidelines include a discussion of the controversial bitemark scoring
system. Despite being described as "dynamic" these guidelines have not been
1987 Warnick AJ, Biedrzycki L, Russanow G. J Forensic
Sci; 32(3):788-92 Not all bite marks are associated with abuse, sexual
activities, or homicides: a case study of a self-inflicted bitemark. A case of
self-inflicted bite mark during an episode of myocardial ischemia is presented.
Paper alerts odontologists to the non-criminal bite.
1987 Ligthelm AJ, Coetzee WJ, van Niekerk PJ. J Forensic
5(1):1-8 The identification of bite marks using the reflex microscope.
Used bitemarks in cheese, apples and chewing gum. The use of the reflex
microscope is described. Not used in case
1987 Dorion RB. J Forens Sci; 32(3):690-7
Transillumination in bite mark evidence. Author describes the value of using
transillumination in the examination of bitemarks. Author describes the
technique's use when bites are poorly defined, barely visible, or obscured by
other superimposed bite marks or traumatic injury patterns. Controversy
surrounds the removal of tissue from victims of crime. Does the increase in
evidentiary value justify this mutilation?
1988 Zarkowski P. J Law & Ethi Dent; 1(1):47-57 Bite
mark evidence: its worth in the eyes of the expert. Excellent review of the
legal status of bitemarks. States " [BMs] evolved from a weak beginning….never
progressed through a testing phase to measure accuracy and reliability"
Recommends cautious use.
1988 Hyzer WG, Krauss TC. J Forensic Sci; 33(2):498-506
The Bite Mark Standard Reference Scale--ABFO No. 2. The ABFO scale is now
universally adopted by not only forensic dentists but also many other forensic
professionals. This paper describes the design and constructional features of
the scale and offers guidelines for its effective application to bite mark
photography. Paper describes an important tool in BM
1988 Vale GL, Rawson RD. J Forensic Sci; 33(1):20
Discussion of "Reliability of the scoring system of the ABFO for human
bitemarks" A "back-track" from the scoring system, advising caution when using
the index and recommending more research. Brought to an end the point system -
no further work was carried out.
1989 Gundelach A. J Forensic Odont;7(2):11-6 Lawyers'
reasoning and scientific proof: a cautionary tale in forensic odontology.
Describes a legal case and states that a cautious approach to bitemark evidence
should be taken. Yet another paper which advises caution when using bitemark
evidence. Little attention paid to such articles.
1990 Whittaker DK Dental Update; 17(9):386-90 Principles
of forensic dentistry: 2. Non-accidental injury, bitemarks and archaeology. The
paper reviews the role of the forensic dentist with respect to non-accidental
injury to children, analysis of bite marks, and archaeological investigations.
Another review on this subject.
1990 West MH, Barsley RE. Mississippi D Ass J; 46(4):7,
11-2 First bite mark convictions in Mississippi. Case reports of bitemark cases
in this State.
1990 West MH, Barsley RE, Frair J, Seal MD. J Forensic
Sci; 35(6):1477-85 The use of human skin in the fabrication of a bite mark
template: two case reports. In this article skin was used as a template for the
reproduction of a bite. In one case the victim's skin was used; in the other,
the skin of a anatomically similar person was used. The use of inked dental
casts, photography, and transparent overlays significantly reduced the errors
common to analysis of bite marks in these highly curved areas. Novel technique
although not well accepted.
1990 Pierce LJ, Strickland DJ, Smith ES Am J Forensic
Med Pathol; 11(2):171-7 The case of Ohio v. Robinson. An 1870 bite mark case.
This trial represents an early and perhaps the first attempt to admit bite-mark
evidence in a court of law in the United States. First case - historical value only.
1990 Barsley RE, West MH, Fair JA. Am J Forensic Med
Pathol; 11(4):300-8 Forensic photography. Ultraviolet imaging of wounds on skin.
This article discusses the photographic techniques involved in reflective and
fluorescent UVL. Documentation of skin wounds via still photography and dynamic
video photographic techniques, which utilise various methods of UV illumination,
are covered. The use of advanced photographic techniques has been questioned in
1991 Dailey JC. J Forensic Sci; 36(2):565-70 A practical
technique for the fabrication of transparent bite mark overlays. A quick,
inexpensive, and accurate technique for generating transparent overlays, using
office photocopy machines, for use in bite mark case analysis is presented.
Photocopy technique was the 1st attempt to produce an objective overlay with
1992 Robinson E, Wentzel J. J Forensic Sci;
37(1):195-207 Toneline bite mark photography. A high-contrast film technique
previously used primarily in the graphic arts field has been refined and applied
to forensic odontology.
1993 Mailis NP. J Forensic Odont; 11(1):31-3 Bitemarks
in forensic dental practice: the Russian experience. Cases from Russia are
1993 Figgener L. J Forensic Odont; 11(2):71-5 Points of
contact between quality issues and forensic aspects. Issues related to
1994 Ligthelm AJ, van Niekerk PJ J Forensic Odont;
12(2):23-9 Comparative review of bitemark cases from Pretoria, South Africa. The
purpose of this study was to record the experiences with bitemark cases
presented to forensic odontologists at the University of Pretoria from 83-93 and
to compare them with trends and findings elsewhere. Some details on anatomical
locations may be useful.
1994 Wood RE, Miller PA, Blenkinsop BR. J Forensic
Odont; 12(2):30-6 Image editing and computer assisted bitemark analysis: a case
report. Three different approaches for comparison with the bitemark photograph
were utilized: comparison with radiographs of amalgam-filled impressions of
dental casts, a transparent overlay technique and comparison with photographs of
a simulated bitemark inked onto the hand of a volunteer.
1994 Thompson IO, Phillips VM. J Forensic Odont;
12(2):37-40 A bitemark case with a twist. This is a case report in which the
bite patterns of two suspects were compared to a bitemark on the breast of a
murder victim. Each suspect had sufficient concordant features to have been
found guilty of producing the bitemark. The irony in this case is that the
bitemark was not inflicted by the murderer.
1994 Aboshi H, Taylor JA, Takei T, Brown KA. J Forensic
Odont; 12(2):41-4 Comparison of bitemarks in foodstuffs by computer imaging: a
case report. Marks in cake discovered at a crime scene were examined and
compared with the teeth of a suspect arsonist. The comparison was made by
computer imaging analysis and a remarkable similarity in arch shape was
1994 Jessee SA Paediatric Dentistry; 16(5):336-9
Recognition of bite marks in child abuse cases. Health professionals must be
attentive to any and all signs of child maltreatment. Bite marks are one of
several visual expressions of active child abuse. Another paper describing this
1994 Barry LA Bull Hist Dent; 42(1):21-7 Bite mark
evidence collection in the United States. A legal historical review. Better
reviews exist, see above.
1994 Nuckles DB, Herschaft EE, Whatmough LN. General
Dentistry. 42(3):210-4 Forensic odontology in solving crimes: dental techniques
and bite-mark evidence.
This article is misplaced and can be found after the
95 Rothwell review. Usual review of technique and legal issues.
1995 Nambiar P, Bridges TE, Brown KA. J Forensic Odont;
13(2):18-25 Quantitative forensic evaluation of bite marks with the aid of a
shape analysis computer program: Part 1; The development of "SCIP" and the
similarity index. In this study, an interactive shape analysis computer program
("SCIP"-Shape Comparison Interactive Program) has been employed in an attempt to
derive experimentally a quantitative comparison, in the form of a Similarity
Index (S.I.), between the "offender's" teeth and the bite marks produced on a
standard flat wax form.
1995 Nambiar P, Bridges TE, Brown KA. J Forensic Odont;
13(2):26-32 Quantitative forensic evaluation of bite marks with the aid of a
shape analysis computer program: Part 2; "SCIP" and bite marks in skin and
foodstuffs. In this study, "SCIP" was employed in an attempt to quantify the
comparison, in the form of the Similarity Index (S.I.), between the "offender's"
teeth and the bite marks produced on foodstuffs and on human skin, under
1995 Free EW, Brown KA. J Forensic Odont; 13(2):33-5 A
bitemark and a fracture? Case presents an interesting problem of interpretation
of odontological evidence relevant to the identification of the offender, and
raises issues concerning proper procedures for the utilisation of expertise in
forensic odontology. First case in Dutch law.
1995 Jakobsen J, Holmen L, Fredebo L, Sejrsen B. J
Forensic Odont; (13)2:36-40 Scanning electron microscopy, a useful tool in
forensic dental work. Another description of the use of SEM in bitemarks,
presents four example cases.
1995 Rothwell BR. JADA; 126(2):223-32 Bite marks in
forensic dentistry: a review of legal, scientific issues. This article explores
the legal and scientific basis of bite mark evidence.
1996 Naru AS, Dykes E. Science & Justice.
36(1):47-50 The use of a digital imaging technique to aid bite mark analysis.
Describes th e use of a computer based overlay technique and uses a case example
to illustrate the method.
1996 Vale GL. J Cal Dent Assoc; 24(5):29-34 Dentistry,
bite marks and the investigation of crime. Another review of the bitemark
science - includes case examples
1996 Aksu MN, Gobetti JP. Am J Forensic Med Pathol;
17(2):136-40 The past and present legal weight of bite marks as evidence. Legal
review. This paper was followed by a letter from Ann Norrlander who criticised
many of the points. Better legal reviews available.
1997 Naru AS, Dykes E. Science & Justice;
37(4):251-8 Digital image cross-correlation technique for bite mark
investigations. Describes the production of a complex computer program for
assessing bitemarks. Describes a series of experiments to validate the
1997 Williams RG, Porter BE. J Oklahoma Dent Assoc;
88(2):29-30 Forensic dentistry. Documentation of bite-mark evidence using
multiple computer-assisted techniques. Describes a computer technique - however
describes using a pencil to highlight the incisal edges prior to scanning -
1998 Sweet D, Parhar M, Wood RE. J Forensic Sci;
43(5):1050-5 Computer-based production of bite mark comparison overlays. This
paper describes this technique to enable the odontologist to produce
high-quality, accurate comparison overlays without subjective input.
1998 Wright FD. J Forensic Sci; 43(4):881-7 Photography
in bite mark and patterned injury documentation. Part 2: A case study. The
evidence recovered at each photography session is discussed and photographs are
presented for review. Suggestions concerning the need for more research are
1998 Sweet D, Bowers CM. J Forensic Sci; 43(2):362-7
Accuracy of bite mark overlays: a comparison of five common methods to produce
exemplars from a suspect's dentition. Five common overlay production methods
were compared using digital images of dental study casts as a reference
1998 Atkinson SA. Med, Sci & Law; 38(1):34-41 A
qualitative and quantitative survey of forensic odontologists in England and
Wales, 1994. Forty forensic odontologists in England and Wales, as listed for
the British Association for Forensic Odontology in Spring 94, were surveyed by
post. Interesting paper with some useful statistics.
1998 Whittaker DK, Brickley MR, Evans L. Forensic Sci
Int; 92(1):11-20 A comparison of the ability of experts and non-experts to
differentiate between adult and child human bite marks using receiver operating
characteristic (ROC) analysis EMP Fifty colour prints of human bite marks were
sent to 109 observers who were asked to decide using a six point rating scale,
whether the marks had been produced by the teeth of an adult or a child.
Interesting results found.